Russian Grammar 108 – Dative Case

The Dative case is used when we are going to speak about indirect objects and it answers the question “кому?”, “чему?” –  for / to whom? For / to what?
It’s generally used to show the receiver of the action like with the English preposition “to”.


Usage of the Dative case.

1. To indicate the receiver of the action, mostly an indirect object of the sentence.

Example:

мама дала дочке молоко – The mother gives milk to her daughter.

Explanation: the mother gives milk TO WHOM? дочке (to her daughter), the word “дочке” is dative case form of the noun “дочка” and indicates the receiver of the action.

Some common verbs we use often, after which goes dative case of nouns:

давать – to give
разрешать – to allow
помогать – to help
говорить – to tell
звонить – to call
приносить- to bring.

Examples:

Она помогает дочке – she helps her daughter
Она даёт дочке – she gives to her daughter
Она звонит дочке – she calls her daughter.

2. Dative case is also used to describe a person affected by emotional or physical state.

Example:

девочке холодно – the girl is cold
Ане скучно – Ann is bored.

3. Dative case is used after prepositions:

к – to, towards
по – along
благодаря – thanks to
вопреки – in spite of, despite
подобно – likewise
согласно – in accordance with
навстречу – to meet, towards.

Examples:

согласно контракту – in accordance with the contract
Благодаря моим друзьям – thank to my friends.

How to form dative case for singular nouns:

Add -у to masculine nouns ending in a hard consonant.

Example:

студент, дать студенту письмо – give a letter to a student.

Remove last vowel and add – у to neuter nouns ending in -о:

окно, подойти к окну – to get to the window.

Remove soft sign -ь or -й and add -ю to masculine nouns ending in -й, -ь.

Example:

учитель – позвонить учителю.

Add – ю neuter nouns ending in -е

Example:
ие море, подъехать к морю – drive to the sea
соревнование, готовиться к соревнованию – to prepare for the competition.

Remove soft sign -ь or -я and add -и  to feminine nouns ending in – я, -ь except some personal names.

Examples:

печь, Лена подошла к печи – Lena gets to the oven
армия, мужчина благодарен армии за навыки солдата – The man is thankful to army for soldier skills.

EXERCISE: 108 Dative case | NEXT: 109 Instrumental case