Russian Grammar 110 – Prepositional Case

Prepositional Case

The Prepositional case is so called because it is always used after prepositions and answers the questions: about who?, About what?, Where? 
The four prepositions that call this case are о/об/обо (about), при (on) в (in), and на (on). 


Usage of prepositional case:

to indicate the location of something or someone we use prepositions -в (in) or -на (on).

Example:

Шарф в сумке – the scarf is in the bag
телефон на столе – the telephone is on the table
он пошел в школу – he went to school
она живет в Москве – she lives in Moscow.
 
To indicate a person or an object being talked or thought about and used after prepositions -о (about).
Example:

она думала о маме – she was thinking about her mom
мы говорили о погоде – we were talking about the weather.
 
To indicate time, it is used with name of the months.

Example:  
она вышла замуж в апреле – she’s got married in April.

How to form prepositional case.

Masculine nouns:

1. Nouns ending with a consonant add the ending -e.

Example:
стол – на столе, парк – в парке.

A few masculine (mainly one-syllable) nouns have special stressed endings -у/я after prepositions -в ‘in’ and -на ‘on’. 

Example:
сад – в саду, лес – в лесу.
 
2. Nouns ending in – ь and – й, except nouns ending in -ий change their final letters to -е.
 
Example:

музей о музее – about the museum
писатель о писателе – about the writer.

3. Nouns ending in – ий change their final letter to – и.

Example: улий – об улии / about the beehive. 

Feminine nouns: 

1. Nouns ending in – а change their ending to – е. 

Example:
лампа о лампе – about the lamp.

2. Nouns ending in – я, except nouns ending in – ия, change – я and – ь to – е.
 
Example:
земля о земле – about the ground
неделя о неделе – about the week.

3. Nouns ending in – ия, change – я, to – и.

Example:

станция – станции – station.

4. Nouns ending in -ь change to -и. 

Example:

ночь ночи – night
печь печи – oven. 

Neuter nouns:

1. Nouns ending in – ие, change the final  – е to -и.

Example:
здание здании – building 

2. Nouns ending in – о change their ending to -е.

Example:
окно окне – window

3. Nouns ending in -е except nouns ending in – ие, have the ending -е.

Example:

поле поле – field. 

4. Nouns ending in -мя change  -я to – ени. 

Example:
время времени – time.

Plural form: 

Masculine nouns
 
1. Nouns ending in a consonant add the ending -ах.

Example:
диван / диванах – sofa / sofas
 
2. Nouns ending in – ь and  – й change their final letters to – ях.

Example:
край / краях – the edge / edges.  

Feminine nouns 

1. Nouns ending in – а change their ending to – ах.

Example:

ложка / ложках – spoon / spoons
Куртка / куртках – jacket / jackets

2. Nouns ending in -я and in – ь change -я and – ь to -ях.

Example:

станция / станциях – station / stations 
Дверь / дверях – door / doors 

Neuter nouns.

1. Nouns ending in -о change their ending to – ах.

Example:
окно / окнах – window / windows
Очко / очках – point / points.
 
2. Nouns ending in -e change their ending to -ях.

Example:

Море / морях – sea / seas.

3. Nouns ending in  -мя change – я to -енах.

Example:
время / временах – time / times.

EXERCISE: 110 Prepositional case